When they are directed into an object, some of the photons are absorbed or scattered, whereas others completely penetrate the object. The penetration can be expressed as the fraction of radiation passing through the object. Penetration is the inverse of attenuation. The amount of penetration depends on the energy of the individual photons and the atomic number, density, and thickness of the object, as illustrated below. Factors That Affect the Penetration of Radiation through a Specific Object The probability of photons interacting, especially with the photoelectric effect, is related to their energy.
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Radiation Penetration of gamma betas alphas and neutrons, why the penetrations look different. The Exponential curve Many people have heard of tenth value layers, and protection factors. Where does that come from? A material as made up of a large number of atoms. Each atom in a material has a small area cross-section so radiation that travels through that material has some chance of striking the atom. Here is a picture to illustrate some slab of material, and radiation traveling through it figure 1.
Real-World Considerations There is a big gap between theory and reality, though. Ferromagnetic Materials Materials to be tested can be non-ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic. However, such frequencies require coils with more windings, ergo larger coils, which lowers probe resolution and makes results noisier.
Searching for a Model to Fit the Data to What we all want at the end of the day is to use the experimental data to make predictions of penetration for any given projectile travelling at any given velocity. To do that, we need to find the pattern behind the data. At first glance, there's not much of a pattern to it.